Descriptive data were expressed as individual data points graphical- ly with or without violin plots representing the data distributions for each outcome. Comparisons between groups were performed using either parametric or nonparametric approaches depending on the outcome being examined. For outcomes measured on either a continuous or an ordinal scale taken on two or more groups, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) models with Tukey’s post hoc adjustments or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare groups. For analyses where two paired groups were being examined, Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used. All analyses were performed using Prism (version 9.3; GraphPad Software). Statistical significance was indicated on all graphs as follows between condi- tions *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, or ***P < 0.001 unless otherwise stated. Results were conducted from at least three independent experi- ments (n = 3 for in vitro data and n = 4 to 6 for in vivo experiments)
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